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初中英语阅读理解 复习找不准方向

2019-01-02 10:18:14  来源:本站原创

  期末要来啦,英语的复习提上日程了吗?

  单词、语法、阅读、写作?

  哪一座大山都不好搬哪!

  下面婷婷老师给大家阅读题进行详细剖析,

  记得仔细揣摩,阅读不再压力山大哦

  来看吧!

  阅读理解之细节理解题

 
 

  1. 细节题即我们常见的wh-题,(what, which, who, where, why, when, whose, how),根据文章的具体信息如事实,例证,原因,过程等进行提问,考查学生获取信息,以及对文章所提供信息的理解能力。

  2. 常见设题方式

  (1) Which of the following statement is True/ Not True?(是非判断题型)

  (2) Which of the following is Not mentioned in the text?

  (3) What/ Who/ When/ Where/ Why/ How…? (特殊疑问类型)

  (4) All the statements are true Except?(except,除……之外)

  (5) Which is the right order of …?(排序题类型)

  (6) The author gives in the example in …paragraph in order to …(例证题类型)

  (7) …the most/ ~est; ……the only …… (判断修饰限定的细节题类型)

  3. 答题技巧

  (1) 审题:找出题干或选项中的关键词(数字,大写,人民,地名等);

  (2) 阅读全文,确定该细节在文中的出处;

  (3) 对照题干要求,排除或者选择;

  (4) 确定答案,并验证答案。

  例题1:

  How much does your mother do for you? She taught you to walk, helped you learn to read and looks after you every day. And you could never thank her enough for everything.

  Q: According to the passage, what did your mother do for you?

  A. Taught you to walk. C. Took care of you

  B. Helped you learn to read D. All of the above.

  答案:D,根据划线部分可知A,B,C都是,故选择D。

  例题2:

  Mr. Brown was born in a poor family. (D)He couldn’t go to school when he was young. (A)Now he’s a porter and works at a station. (C)He doesn't think it necessary to know some knowledge of science. His son. Bill, began to go to school last year. The boy likes nothing except playing. He doesn't listen to the teachers in class and can't do his homework after class. It's the hardest thing for him to do math exercises. And he wants to drop it.

  Q: Which of the following is true?

  A. Mr. Brown was going to be a porter when he was young.

  B. Mr. Brown's parents were too poor to send him to school.

  C. Mr. Brown wasn't interested in science when he was young.

  D. There was no school in Mr. Brown's hometown.

  答案:B,首先要知道题目让我们选择的是正确的一项,根据划线部分可得出答案为B。他现在是一个行李搬运工,而不是以前,A错误;Mr Brown 现在认为没有必要知道一些科学知识,C错误;根据第二句话可知因为家里穷没有上学,而不是没有学校,D错误。

  4. 细节干扰项特征

  (1) 是原文信息,但不是题目所要求的信息;

  (2) 符合常识,但不是文章内容;

  (3) 与原文内容及其相似,只是在程度上有些变动(通常过于绝对化的词不要选);

  (4) 部分正确,部分错误;

  (5) 张冠李戴。

  例题:

  The children’s answers were generally growth of moral understanding in early childhood. (D)More of the four-to-five-year-olds thought the child in the story would feel better keeping the stolen candy, lying and getting unpunished. They imagined the parent in the study would be angry with the child who confessed. However, the seven-to-nine-year-olds were more likely(可能的)to think the child would feel better confessor.

  Q: What did smith and his workmates find in their study?

  A. Older kids are more likely than younger children to confess to a bad act.

  B. Younger children are more likely than older kids to confess to a bad act.

  C. The four-to-five-year-olds would feel better confessing the crime.

  D. The seven-to-nine-year-olds thought parents would be angry with their confessions.

  答案:A,本题带了一点的推理题在里面,不可以直接得出答案,需要转换一下思路。根据第二句话可知D选项错误,应该是4-5岁的孩子认为承认错误父母会生气;根据最后一句话可知B和C错误,A选项正确。

  注:本道题很好的体现了部分正确和部分错误以及张冠李戴这种现象,做题时要注意

  动作发生的主语是谁。

  阅读理解之词义猜测题

  1.词义猜测题是指在阅读过程中,根据对语篇的信息,逻辑,背景知识及语言结构等的综合理解去猜测或推断某一生词,难词,关键词的意义。

  备注:两种方式:(1)猜测单词的中文意思;(2) 猜测单词的同义词或者近义词。

  2.常见设题方式

  (1)The underlined word/ phrase in the passage means _________.

  (2)The word “it/ them” in Para 1/ the first paragraph refers to __________.

  (3)What does the underlined word “…” refers to __________.

  (4)What’s the meaning of the underline word “…”?

  3.答题技巧

  (1)根据上下文语境猜测词义

  例题:

  Hello, everyone. I’m Gina. I’m a librarian. I work in a school library. It’s 3:30 in the afternoon now. I’m working for the students.

  Q: The underlined word “ librarian” in the passage means ________.

  A. 校长 B. 图书管理员 C. 作家 D. 书商

  答案:B,联系上下文,在学校图书馆工作,应该是图书管理员。

  (2)根据定义或者释义关系猜测词义

  利用定义或者释义关系猜测词义,即根据文章上下文,借助定语(从句),表语甚至用逗号,破折号等引出的内容对生词加以解释说明。常用的标志性词汇有:be, mean, refer to, be called, be known as, that is, or, in other words等

  例题:

  I ran into my house quickly to call 119, and then I rang my neighbor’s doorbell and knocked at the door, but there was no response. Oh, maybe there was nobody at home. I got into the house through the window and found…

  Q: The underlined word “response” can be replaced by _________.

  A. result B. answer C. question D. key

  答案:B,根据前后文,敲门但是没有回应,可能家里没有人在家,response这个单词是“回应”的意思,和answer是同义词。

  (3)根据生活常识猜测词义

  例题:

  It was a great way to get his mind off what he had to do later. As they got close to the school, he could feel his heart beating. His hands were starting to sweat. He hated this!

  Q: What does the underlined word “sweat” probably mean?

  A. 触摸 B. 鼓掌 C. 出汗 D. 指点

  答案:C,前文说到走进学校的时候,感觉到自己的心跳,根据生活常识紧张的时候心跳得很快,并且会出汗,所以可以推测出这个单词的意思,sweat是“出汗”的意思。

  (4)根据对比关系猜测词义

  在but, however, yet, otherwise, though这些表示意义转折的连词出现的句子中,其前后的词有明显的对比关系,根据已知的内容,通过这种对比关系,很容易猜出生词的词义。

  例题1:

  Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby.

  Q: What does the underlined word “grubby” refer to ?

  A. 肮脏的 B. 整洁的 C.舒服的 D. 仔细的

  答案:A,though表示尽管,前后转折,句意为:尽管Tom的脸被洗得很干净,他得脖子仍然是脏的。前后对比,grubby为clean的反义词。

  例题2:

  Parents of very young children know this: You catch your child in the act of stealing the cookie——the evidence of candy written on his or her face. However, you get a wide-eyed denial: “I didn’t do it!”

  Q: What does the underlined word “denial” mean?

  A. 委屈 B. 责备 C. 否认 D. 拒绝

  答案:C,根据段落意思,抓住了孩子偷东西的行为,但是你得到了一个否认的答案。However前后表示转折,denial作为名词,是否认的意思。

  阅读理解之主旨大意题

  1.主旨大意题

  在于考查对全文或者某一段落整体把握能力,即对整篇文章的概括能力;考查的题目大多是针对段落(或全文)的主题思想,标题或者目的。

  2. 常见设题方式

  (1)考查文章的中心思想

  The main idea/key point of this passage is that ________.

  Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

  (2)考查文章标题的选择

  The best title/headline for this passage is ________.

  Which of the following is the best title?

  (3)考查作者的写作态度和意图

  What is the author’s main purpose in this passage?

  In the passage the author wants to tell ________.

  The writer’s attitude towards ... is ________.

  (4)考查文章段落大意的理解

  In Paragraph 2 the author aims to tell us ________.

  3.主旨大意题的错误选项特点

  (1)以偏概全:只是局部信息或者一句没有展开论述的话。

  (2)过于笼统:即归纳的主题太宽泛,与细节脱节或没有对细节加以充分论述。

  (3)把观点强加于作者:读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判断,而忽视了作者观点。

  (4)无关信息:在文章中没有提到或者找不到原文依据的信息。

  4.解题技巧

  (1)主题句在段首

  例题:

  There are many different ways to travel to Paris from London. One of the quickest and most popular ways is by train. From Waterloo Railway Station, you can travel all the way to Paris. The journey(旅程)takes about three hours. The train, called the Eurostar, is very modern, and the seats are comfortable. You can also travel to France by ship ...

  Q: The passage mainly tells us about ______ .

  A. different ways traveling from London to Paris.

  B. international flights from London to Paris.

  C. buses stopping at Ferry Terminal Seven in Dover.

  答案:A,通过阅读文章可知,文章的第一句 “There are many different ways to travel to Paris from London. ” 是该段的主题句。“从巴黎到伦敦有很多不同的方式”,接下来说“One of the quickest and most popular ways is by train ”, “You can also travel to France by ship ... ”,论述主题句。

  (2)主题句在段尾

  例题:

  What do you think of online shopping and traditional shopping? Today my classmate May and I have a talk about it. We have different ideas about online shopping and traditional shopping.

  May likes online shopping. She thinks it is easy and she can buy almost

  everything on the Internet. She doesn't like to go to real shops because there are always too many people. But I like traditional shopping. I think trying on clothes in the real shop is great. And sometimes it is not safe to buy things on the Internet.

  Q: This article mainly tells us ______ .

  A. May likes online shopping

  B. I like traditional shopping

  C. difference between online shopping and traditional shopping

  D. May and I have different ideas about online shopping and traditional shopping

  答案:D,通读全文可知,第一段最后一句“We have different ideas about online shopping and traditional shopping. ” 为本文主题句,第二段是围绕这一主题展开的,故答案选D。

  (3)归纳总结法

  有些文章没有明确的主题句,这就要求学生得对全文的内容进行归纳总 结,得出全文的主题思想,从而解答题目。

  注意:① 不能以偏概全,分清主次,抓住主干;

  ② 不能过于宽泛,要恰如其分;

  ③ 注意多次出现的高频词或主题词,抓住关键词。

  例题:

  Many Chinese people like American country music. But still some people don't know when country music began.

  Country music is from the folk music(民间音乐)of the Appalachian Mountains in the east of America. There, people sang while playing the violin and the guitar. They sang about everyday life, love and their problems. So the songs were sometimes a little sad.

  One of the most popular country music singers is John Denver. He is also quite famous to the Chinese. In 1997, John Denver died. The world lost a great man. But his music and words will live on.

  Q: What's the main idea of the passage?

  A. Chinese like American country music.

  B. Country music is from the folk music.

  C. John Denver is a country music singer.

  D. Some things about American country music.

  答案:D,本文第一段由“许多中国人喜欢美国乡村音乐” 引入;第二段介绍了乡村音乐的由来;第三段介绍了一名乡村音乐歌手。由此可知本文都是围绕乡村音乐这一中心展开的,选项A、B、C都是本文的一个方面,只有D项最全面,故选D。

  注:采用归纳主题法解答主旨大意题时,可先归纳每一个段落的中心意思,然后再对每段的中心意思进行总结,从而得出全文的主题思想。

  阅读理解之推理引申题

  1. 推理引申题主要测试考生理清上下文逻辑关系的能力,要求考生领悟所读材料中句子之间的逻辑关系,并且根据材料提供的已知信息进行分析、归纳和推理。

  2. 常见设题方式

  (1) It can be inferred from the text/the last paragraph/the first sentence that…

  (2) We can infer that…

  (3) The author suggests in the passage that…

  (4) From the passage /the third paragraph/the last sentence/the example that we can draw the conclusion that …

  3.解题方法

  与事实细节题不同,推理引申题的答案是以事实和观点为依据进行分析和研究,按照事实发展的逻辑次序,得出结论,此结论不能与文章描述重合。

  例题:

  Think about the different ways that people use the wind. You can use it to fly a kite or to sail a boat. Wind is one of our cleanest and richest power sources, as well as one of the oldest. Evidence shows that windmills began to be used in ancient Iran back in the seventh century BC. They were first introduced to Europe during the 1100s, when armies returned from the Middle East with knowledge of using wind power.

  For many centuries, people used windmills to grind wheat into flour or pump water from deep underground. When electricity was discovered in the late 1800s, people living in remote areas began to use them to produce electricity. This allowed them to have electric lights and radio. However, by the 1940s, when electricity was available to people in almost all areas of the United States, windmills were rarely used.

  During the 1970s, people started becoming concerned about the pollution that is created when coal and gas are burned to produce electricity. People also realized that the supply of coal and gas would not last forever. Then, wind was rediscovered, though it means higher costs. Today, there is a global movement to supply more and more of our electricity through the use of wind.

  Q:What would the author probably discuss in the paragraph that follows?

  A. The advantage of wind power.

  B. The design of wind power plants.

  C. The worldwide movement to save energy.

  D. The global trend towards producing power from wind.

  答案: D,本题需要根据整篇文章,尤其是最后一段所讲内容进行推测和判断,前提是我们要了解文章主要讲的是风能利用的历史,而且最后提到现如今人们更加关注污染问题,全球有重新利用风能的趋势,所以接下去段落肯定会围绕全球范围内利用风制造能源的趋势,故选D。

  阅读理解之作者观点题

  1. 在一篇文章中,作者的观点态度的提出,有的直截了当,有的隐含在字里行间,有的通过所用词语的褒贬来体现,有的则需要通读全文,把握主旨才能领会。题干中的关键词或词组有attitude,opinion,tone等等.

  2.常见设题方式

  (1)作者态度题

  What is the tone (mood) of the passage?

  Which of the following can best describe the attitude of the author?

  (2)作者观点题

  What does the writer think of…?

  According to the author, …. In the author’s opinion, ….

  The author thinks (believes, suggests) that …

  In the author’s eyes …

  例题:

  Hong Kong will never be the same again since the street riots(骚乱) began at 1:40 am on Sunday. While the situation is changing by the minute, here are the major notes of Monday morning.

  Firstly, the most significant development with “Occupy Central” is that it appears to have turned “Occupy the business district” to “Occupy Government Headquarters”. The original purpose was to pressure the government into accepting their demands, but the new target gave the “Occupy” movement a new dishonest twist. Unfortunately, few have discussed this key change of direction, and many participants were not aware of what they were actually doing.

  To make matters worse, the “Occupy” movement is now leaderless. “Occupy” co-founder Chan Kin- man said those that stormed onto Harcourt Road and Connaught Road Central were “not under their control”. Chan said “their actions were not organized by us.” Similarly, the Hong Kong Federation of Students(香港学生联合会) asked the protesters to quit, and told them the police might strengthen their use of force, but few followed their advice.

  In a leaderless movement, no one takes responsibility for the actions of protesters(示威民众), and there is nobody with whom authorities can talk.

  No matter how it turns out, political situation will get worse. Hong Kong now has two worlds, and two realities- one in which the government is “evil” and the other in which the dissidents(异议者) are crazy. This will have a considerable impact in the coming decade.

  Q:What is the author’s possible attitude towards this movement?

  A. He encourages people in Hong Kong to take part in the movement.

  B. He is against the latest change of the movement.

  C. He is a supporter of the “Occupy” movement.

  D. He thinks the government is evil.

  答案:B, 在这篇文章中作者并没有明确提出自己的观点,我们只能通过在作者叙述事件的过程中所用到的描述性词语,如dishonest, worse, leaderless...等来判断作者是反对占中活动。

 

  以上就是为大家整理的初中英语阅读理解,复习找不准方向?同学们还有其他学习上的问题,可拨打爱智康课程免费咨询热线电话:4000-121-121 .那里有专业的老师为大家解答。

  本文由杭州爱智康婷婷老师编写,转载请标明出处。

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