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初中英语语法复习 主动与被动语态+练习 巩固必备

2020-01-10 09:48:08  来源:网络整理

  在英语语法中,语态不算是个特别难的一块。但考试也会出现,下面给大家总结总结~

  主动语态

  主语是谓语动作的使动方。

  也就是说谓语的动作源自主语,而施加于宾语。

  相反,被动语态中,主语是谓语动作的受动方,如果有宾语的,宾语往往是谓语动作的使动方。

  在语法机构上,主动语态和被动语态的区别主要在于,主动语态直接使用动词原形作为谓语,然后再在该动词原形的基础上施加时态和其他语法;

  而被动语态则使用系词+动词的过去分词作为谓语,各种时态和其他语法也施加在系词上。

 

  被动语态

  英语中的被动语态使用得比汉语要多,要普遍,许多课本及考试乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。

  一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时,多用被动式。

  须注意的是,许多地方与汉语不同。

  注意那些汉语中没有"被……"的意思,英语却应该用被动态。

  还要注意,英语的被动态往往由"by"引出,而有用介词"by"的短语往往又不是被动态,而是系表结构。

  还有些特殊现象,如:known to man(人类......所知),on foot步行(美国人有时用by foot),in carriage (乘四轮马车)等等。

 

  各种时态的主动语态

 

  主动语态与被动语态的区别

  在主动语态中,主语后面接人(be +动词原型)

  被动语态(be+动词过去分词)

  在主动语态中,主语是谓语动词的使动方。在被动语态中,主语是谓语动词的受动方。

  在语法结构上,主动语态和被动语态的区别主要在于,主动语态直接使用动词原形作为谓语,然后再在该动词原形的基础上施加时态和其他语法;而被动语态则使用系词+动词的过去分词作为谓语,各种时态和其他语法也施加在系词上。

  举例:

  1.主动语态:The snowslide killed him. 雪崩害死了他。

  被动语态:He was killed by the snowslide. 他死于雪崩。

  2.主动语态:We use electricity to run machines. 我们用电力来开动机器。

  被动语态:Electricity is used to run machines. 电力被我们用来开动机器。

  3.主动语态:Bell invented the telephone in 1876.贝尔于1876年发明了电话。

  被动语态:The telephone was invented by Bell in1876.电话是贝尔于1876年发明的。

 

  主动形式表示被动意义

  1、连系动词(如:feel,taste,sound,smell,look等)用主动形式表示被动意义。

  如:

  This material feels very soft. 这块材料摸上去很柔软。

  This apple tastes good. 这个苹果尝起来很好吃。

  2、有些表示主语内在性质或性能的不及物动词常与一些副词连用,用一般现在时的主动形式表示被动意义,其主语一般为事物。这些动词有:sell,read, write,wash,wear,last等。

  如:

  The pen writes smoothly 这支笔写起来很流畅。

  This kind of food sells well. 这种食物很畅销。

  3、动词need, want, require表示"需要时",后接动名词或不定式的被动式表示被动意义。

  如:

  Your room needs cleaning/to be cleaned. 你的房间需要打扫一下。

  My house requires repairing/to be cleaned. 我的房子需要修理一下。

  4、在"be worth doing"短语中,动作与主语之间存在动宾关系,用主动形式表示被动意义。

  如:This book is well worth reading 这本书很值得一读。

  5、在"主语 +be + adj +to do"这个句型中,不定式动作与主语之间存在动宾关系,则用主动形式表示被动意义。

  如:

  This question is hard to answer. 这个问题很难回答。

  English is easy to learn. 英语很好学。

  6、Won't或wouldn't表示"不愿"时,后面的动词常用主动形式表示被动意义。

  如:

  The door won't open. 这门就是打不开。

  This box wouldn't move. 这个盒子就是移不动。

 

  主动形式表被动含义

  某些系动词,如feel, look, seem, appear, taste, sound, smell, prove,remain等用主动形式表示被动意义;主语通常是事物,且表示该事物本身具有某一固有特征。

  如:

  The material feels very soft. 这种料子摸起来很柔软。

  误:The material is felt very soft.

  The music sounds beautiful. 这音乐听起来很美妙。

  误:The music is sounded beautiful.

  表示主语由内在品质或性能,使得主语得以实现或不能实现,用主动表示被动,常见的这类动词有:write, read, clean, sell, wash,cook, open, close, lock等。

  1、同well, badly, easily等副词连用。

  如:

  The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。

  The book sells well. 那本书很畅销。

  The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔很好写。

  2、 谓语动词用否定式。

  如:

  The window won’t open. 这扇窗开不了。

  The door won’t lock. 这门锁不上。

  3、主语+谓语(blow, wear等) +主补。

  如:

  The door blew open. 门被风吹开了。

  某些日常用语,cook, bake, make, print, pack, build, work out等动词用于进行时态时,可用主动形式表示被动意义。

  如:

  The fish is cooking. 鱼正在煮。

  The book is printing. 那本书正在印刷中。

  The plan is working out. 计划正在制订。

  不定式在下列情况下用主动形式表示被动意义:

  1、在“be+形容词+fit to do”句型中。

  如:English words are difficult to remember. 英语单词很难记。

  注:常用于此句型形容词有easy, hard, difficult, heavy, light, comfortable等。

  2、 在作补语的形容词后作状语的不定式。

  如:We found the book easy to understand. 我们觉得这本书的容易懂。

  3、 在This /That /These /Those be后的名词后的不定式。

  如:This is a difficult problem to solve. 这是一个很难解决的问题。

  4、在“there be/have/with sth. to do(有……要……) ”结构中。

  如:I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多事要做。

  5、在“疑问代词+不定式”结构。

  如:The question is what to do next. 问题是接下来做什么。

  6、在“be to blame/seek/let”结构中。

  如:

  The house is to let. 此房出租。

  He is to blame for this. 他因此事应受到责备。

  在表示“需要”的need, want, require,及be worth后的动词-ing形式,用主动形式表示被动含义。

  如:

  The floor needs sweeping. 这地需要打扫了。

  That picture is worth looking at. 那幅画值得看。

 

  含被动意义的主动语态

  1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…

  The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

  This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

  2)blame, lent(出租), remain, keep, rent, build

  I was to blame for the accident. 我对这起事故负责。

  Much work remains. 还有大量工作要做。

  3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。

  The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. 门需要修了。

  This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。

  This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

  4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done(要某人做某事)。

 

  练习

  1、Today Chinese ____ by more and more people around the world.

  A. spoke

  B. speak

  C. was spoken

  D. is spoken

  2、Many students _____ chances to show themselves in class because the

  class size is too big.

  A.don't give

  B.aren't given

  C.haven't given

  D.won't give

  3、—Do your parents allow you to go to the movies on weekends?

  —Yes. I ________ to go to the movies on weekends.

  A. am not allowed

  B. allow

  C. allowed

  D. am allowed

  4、 Look at the factory! It ____ before I came here.

  A. is built

  B. was building

  C. has built

  D. was built

  5、Now it’s much easier to shop online when your order is ready, the things you want to buy to you soon.

  A. send

  B. were sent

  C. are sending

  D. will be sent

  6、 Trees and flowers _____ every

  year to make our school more beautiful.

  A. plant

  B. are planted

  C. were planted

  7、 —At present, one of the best ways to study is working in groups.

  —More chances _______ to students to learn from each other.

  A. offer

  B. are offered

  C. have offered

  D. are offering

  8、More than 70,000,000 sharks __ for their fins every year. It's really time for us to do something.

  A. kill

  B. killed

  C. are killed

  D. were killed

  9、--It’s difficult for the village children to cross the river for school.

  --I think a bridge _______ over the river.

  A. should be built

  B. is being built

  C. has been built

  D. was built

  10、There was a strong wind last night and the clouds .

  A. were blown away

  B. will be blown away

  C. blew away

  D. blow away

  11、—Don’t you know swimming __________ here? It’s dangerous.

  —I’m sorry. I’m new here.

  A. doesn’t allow

  B. won’t allow

  C. wasn’t allowed

  D. isn’t allowed

  12、—Hey, Molly. You ________ on the phone just now. But you weren't here and the man left a phone number.

  —Oh? I was in the library.

  A. wanted

  B. are wanted

  C. were wanted

  D. have wanted

  13、 We ____ to go to the movies on Friday nights.

  A. allowed

  B. are allowed

  C. were allowed

  14、 —I don’t think sixteen­ year­ olds ________ to drive.

  —I agree. They aren’t serious enough at that age.

  A.can allow

  B.need be allowed

  C.should allow

  D.should be allowed

  15、---- How’s your tour around the NORTH Lake? Is it beautiful?

  ---- It ____ be, but it ____ heavily.

  A. ought to; was polluted

  B. can; is polluted

  C. should; is being polluted

  D. used to; has polluted

  16、一Long time no see!

  —I’ve just returned.I to Zhengzhou for a meeting last month.

  A am sent

  B was sent

  C am sending

  D was sending

  17、It’s true that Shakespeare’s plays ______ by so many people every year.

  A. see

  B. will see

  C. are seeing

  D. are seen

  18、—Doctor, it seems you like to work with animals.

  —Yes, I think animals should as our friends.

  A. that; consider

  B. that; be considered

  C. what; consider

  D. what; be considered

  19、— Did people use computers for World War II in the 1940s?

  — No. The first computer, ENIAC     until 1946.

  A. didn’t invent

  B. wasn’t invented

  C. invented

  D. was invented

  20、 Over $30,000 __________ for a children’s hospital by a British girl several months ago.

  A is raised

  B was raised

  C will be raised

  D has been raised

  21、In a sense, bad things ________into good things.

  A. can be turned

  B. can have turned

  C. can turn

  D. can be turning

  22、We’re sure that the environment in our city _____ greatly through our work in the near future.

  A. improved

  B. was improved

  C. will be improved

  D. will improve

  23、I haven’t seen him for a week. He ________that day.

  A. must be wounded

  B. must have been wounded

  C. must wound

  D. must have wounded

  24、— Will you go to the special party held by our English club?

  — Oh, I _________ unless I am a VIP. So the answer is no.

  A. was invited

  B. wasn’t invited

  C. will be invited

  D. won’t be invited

  25、I wonder when Subway Ⅱ in Harbin . When the day comes, I' ll spend less time going to school every day.

  A. is finish

  B. will be finished

  C. was finished

  26、It will be easier for people to realize their dreams if they____ highly____

  A. have; educated

  B. will; educate

  C. are, educated

  D. were; educated

  27、 An official _____ by some reporters on food problems in Shanghai yesterday.

  A. is interviewing

  B. is interviewed

  C. was interviewing

  D. was interviewed

  28、 — Why is your bedroom so dirty?

  — Sorry, Mum. It ___________. I felt very tired after playing soccer.

  A. isn’t cleaned

  B. didn’t clean

  C. doesn’t clean

  D. wasn’t cleaned

  29、--What do you think of the football match yesterday?

  --Well, it' s surprising. The strongest team of our school ________.

  A. was beaten B. won C. scored D. was filled

  30、- The city of Wenzhou looks more and more beautiful.

  -- Yes. That’s because lots of trees ______ every year.

  A. plant

  B. are planting

  C. are planted

  D. have planted

  31、 Sun: Oh, no! The door and the window______!

  Victor: Who could have done this?

  Suan: Go in quickly and see if we've lost anything.

  A.are breaking

  B.have broken

  C.were broken

  D.will break

  32、– Chinese is getting more and more popular in the world.

  -- Yes, nowadays Chinese in many middle schools in Australia.

  A. has taught

  B. is teaching

  C. was taught

  D. is taught

  33、— Have you read today's newspaper?

  -It is reported that a new subway _between the two cities next year.

  A. will be built

  B. was built

  C. has built

  D. will built

  34、- I know the people there are doing something useful to protect the environment.

  -- I agree with you. I believe that those areas     with trees in a few years.

  A. are covered

  B. will cover

  C. are covering

  D. will be covered

  35、The telephone by a well–known scientist, Edison.

  A. invented

  B. inventing

  C. was invented

  D. invents

  36、—How often ________ the Whites ________ by their children?

  —Once a month, because their children live a bit far from them.

  A. do; visit

  B. are; visiting

  C. have; visited

  D. are; visited

  37、--- I hear the math exam is over. Your grades?

  --- I don’t know. The results _________ on Friday afternoon.

  A. put down

  B. have put off

  C. will be put up

  D. will send away

  38、-Students should to have part-time jobs.

  -I agree with you ,If so ,they would not put their heart into their studies.

  A. not be allowed

  B .be allowed

  C. not allow

  D. allow

  39、As the number of Chinese tourists to South Korea dropped sharply, many hotel bookings ____.

  A. cancelled

  B. will cancel

  C. were cancelled

  D. are cancelled

  40、The school leavers’party will come next month and every student’s parents .

  A. invite

  B. will invite

  C. invited

  D. will be invited

 

  答案

  1、D   2、B   3、D   4、D   5、D   6、B   7、B   8、C   9、A   10、A

  11、D   12、C   13、B   14、D   15、C   16、B   17、D   18、B   19、B   20、B

  21、A   22、C   23、B   24、D   25、B   26、C   27、D   28、D   29、A   30、C

  31、C   32、D   33、A   34、D    35、C   36、D   37、C   38、A   39、C   40、D

 

  以上是为大家整理的初中英语语法复习——主动与被动语态+练习,巩固必备!!同学们还有其他学习上的问题,可拨打学而思爱智康课程免费咨询热线电话:4000-121-121 . 有专业的老师为大家解答。

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