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初中英语作文中常见的十种语法错误 注意避免

2020-04-13 09:56:35  来源:网络整理

  快要考试啦,英语作文通常是大家的拉分项。想要作文得高分,这些错误一定要避免的呢!

  英语作文对考生的基本要求归纳为以下四点:内容要完整;语句流畅;没有语法错误;书写规范。能达到上述要求的作文, 作文得分基本上不会低于平均水平。

 

  一、主谓关系中人称和数量不一致性

  汉语的动词不受主语的人称和数量的影响,但英语的谓语动词要和主语保持一致,谓语动词要随着主语变化而变化。而学生受汉语思维的影响,往往没有习惯去考虑主语是第几人称,是单数还是复数。

  错误例子:

  a. A number of students is going to learn a foreign language.

  b. He go to school by bike every day.

  正确例子:

  a. A number of students are going to learn a foreign language.

  b. He goes to school by bike every day.

  分析:

  a句中a number of +复数名词做主语时,其谓语动词用复数形式。b中 He是第三人称单数,在一般现在时态中谓语动词go应该加es。

 

  二、时态

  初中学生在写作中经常在时态方面犯错误。英语时态种类繁多,动词的构成形式随着时态的变化而变化。中文里没有时态区分。动作或动词的时间由跟在动词后的诸如 “着”、“了”、“过”等副词来表示,对初中生来说,掌握英语的时态不是很容易。

  错误例子:

  a. A baby can cry as soon as it was born.

  b. I will not come here if it will rain tomorrow.

  正确例子:

  a. A baby can cry as soon as it is born.

  b. I will not come here if it rains tomorrow.

  分析:

  a句是一个常识问题,应该用一般现在时态。b句主句是一般将来时,从句是一般现在时态。

 

  三、语态错误

  动词的被动式在英语中比比皆是,学生由于汉语思维的影响,很少考虑到用被动语态。虽然中文里也有被动式的含义,但与英语里被动式表达方式完全不同。英语里的被动式要求有助动词be和一个变异的过去分词形式,其中这个助动词带有时态和人称数量信息,中文里需要使用诸如“被”、“使”、“让”等词语,不需要有不规则的动词形式。这对中国的学习者来说就有潜在的困难。

  错误例子:

  a. New bicycles must keep inside.

  b. The book has to return at the end of the week.

  c. The food has cooked.

  d. Knife should take away from babies.

  正确例子:

  a. New bicycles must be kept inside.

  b. The book has to be returned at the end of the week.

  c. The food has been cooked.

  d. Knives should be taken away from babies.

  分析:

  以上句子的问题就在于没有运用好被动语态。

 

  四、固定搭配

  错误多出现在介词短语的搭配和固定词组的搭配上,其中,特殊动词的搭配和用法错误最为常见。

  错误例子:

  a. He suggested to go there on his bike.

  b. My teacher explained me the text very carefully.

  c. My mother made me to choose the one I liked best.

  正确例子:

  a. He suggested going there on his bike.

  b. My teacher explained the text to me very carefully.

  c. My mother made me choose the one I liked best.

  分析:

  中国学习者的英语应用很大程度上受到其母语的影响,经常直接翻译,没有牢牢记住动词的特殊用法和固定搭配。比如suggest doing sth.;explain sth. to sb.;make sb do sth.

 

  五、非谓语动词

  学生常常对非谓语动词的概念不清楚,对不定式、分词、动名词的用法不明白,对句子结构分析不正确,常把非谓语动词误用作谓语动词。

  错误例子:

  a. In the museum there are a lot of interesting things look at.

  b. I am looking forward to see you.

  正确例子:

  a. In the museum there are a lot of interesting things to look at.

  b. I am looking forward to seeing you.

  分析:

  a句中已有谓语动词来修饰things,此句缺的是后置定语。b句look forward to是一个固定短语,look forward to doing sth.

 

  六、冠词的使用

  冠词考查分两个方面,一是冠词的残缺或多余,考生要注意关于含有冠词(不含冠词)的用法以及加冠词与不加冠词的区别,如:in charge of与in the charge of, out of question与out of the question的区别。二是冠词the, a, an(不定冠词和定冠词)之间的相互误用。

  英汉名词确有许多共同点,但是也有不少不同点。英语名词有可数与不可数之分,汉语里没有,且一般情况下,名词都可受到数量词的限制。因此,英语写作中,一旦涉及到advice, news, progress, weather, information等少数常用不可数名词时,学生往往会犯错误。

  不过,在使用英语不可数名词时,又会出现两种情况,一种是绝不可以用a/an或数词来直接修饰,如上述提及的几个名词;另一种情况是,少数不可数名词在被形容词修饰后,可用a/an等来修饰。如time(时间),rain(雨)。所以我们可以说:We had a wonderful time yesterday.

  错误例子:

  a. The air is the most important thing for our existence.

  b. The driver brought the car to stop. In this way, he avoided an accident.

  c. When sun was setting, he still did not catch any fish.

  正确例子:

  a. Air is the most important thing for our existence.

  b. The driver brought the car to a stop. In this way, he avoided an accident.

  c. When the sun was setting, he still did not catch any fish.

  分析:

  a句中air是不可数名词,不需要the,b句中stop在此处的意思是站台,表示某一个站台,需要有a来修饰,c句中太阳是专有名词,需要有the来修饰。

 

  七、代词的使用

  代词主要有人称代词、物主代词、关系代词、反身代词、疑问代词、复合疑问代词、指示代词,要注意代词的各人称之间和单复数之间的误用,关系代词 which, that, as之间的误用,关系代词that与疑问代词what之间的误用,以及what与how的误用等。

  错误例子:

  a. We do not like he.

  b. The population of China is larger than those of Japan.

  c. His book is different from me.

  正确例子:

  a. We do not like him.

  b. The population of China is larger than that of Japan.

  c. His book is different from mine.

  分析:

  只要区分好这些代词之间的区别和意思,其实这些错误很容易被避免。

 

  八、连词的使用

  连词主要有两类,即并列连词和从属连词,考查点主要是并列连词(分递进式、转折式、选择式和因果式四种)之间的误用(主要是but与so/and之间的误用),从属连词之间的误用以及并列连词与从属连词之间的误用等。

  错误例子:

  a. He had little to eat and a large house to live in.

  b. He had no sooner arrived when he fell ill.

  c. If you go this way, and you will soon see the hospital.

  正确例子:

  a. He had little to eat but a large house to live in.

  b. He had no sooner arrived than he fell ill.

  c. If you go this way,you will soon see the hospital.

  分析:

  a句中根据句意可以知道应该表示转折。b中no sooner than是固定搭配。c句中,已经有了if引导这个句子,就不再需要and。

 

  九、名词的使用

  名词主要考查单数名词变复数名词,这主要是受东西方文化差异的影响,英语中除了不可数名词和单数名词用单数外,可数名词要用复数形式。另外还有一些特殊形式。例如:

  错误例子:

  a. What a beautiful weather we are having today!

  b. Please give my best regard to your parents.

  正确例子:

  a. What beautiful weather we are having today!

  b. Please give my best regards to your parents.

  分析:

  a句中weather是不可数名词,不需要a。b中regard是可数的,所以要加上s。

 

  十、情态动词的使用

  主要有以下几种错误:① 情态动词后的动词使用过去时态;② 情态动词后的动词加“s”③ 情态动词后的动词加“ing”④”will”后面的“be”动词用“am、“is”或“are ”;⑤助动词“do”后面的动词用动词过去时态;⑥。助动词“do”后面的动词第三人称单数加“s";⑦ 助动词“do”后面的动词加“ing”等。

  错误例子:

  a. I could did my homework.

  b. He may goes to school by bike every day.

  正确例子:

  a. I could do my homework.

  b. He may go to school by bike every day.

  分析:

  情态动词后加动词原形。

 

  以上是为大家整理的要考试了,初中英语作文中常见的十种语法错误,注意避免。同学们还有其他学习上的问题,可拨打学而思爱智康课程免费咨询热线电话:4000-121-121 . 有专业的老师为大家解答。

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